Past Projects


Cell Systems 3-D has designed and bioengineered numerous prototype 3-D models for investigations in the pathophysiology of microbial, viral and fungi pathogens.
These 3-D models have been used in NIH or privately  sponsored research.



  • Proof of concept; human cerebellum 3-D model for invasiveness and pathology of West Nile Virus, (NY-99 strain) and Dengue-2.
  • Pathophysiology of SARS-coronavirus  (SARS-CoV, Urbani strain) in a human upper airways 3-D model.
  • Pathophysiology of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (wt-A2) and proof of concept for Parainfluenza 1 and 3 in a 3-D human airways model.
  • Pathophysiology of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) in a human endovascular – pharyngeal epithelia 3-D model.
  • Proof of concept 3-D mosquito Ae. albopictus 3-D model for arbovirus transmission.


  • Proof of concept;  3-D human colon model for Mycobacterium spp. invasiveness and pathophysiology.


  • Proof of concept; normal human dermis providing a microenvironment for filarid nematode development from infective larvae to adult.
  • Proof of concept; Human small intestine model for life cycle stage development of Cryptosporidium parvum.


  • Proof of concept;  avian chick small intestinal model for selected bacterial pathogens.
  • Proof of concept; neonatal bovine small intestine-colon for selected bacterial pathogens.
  • Proof of concept; tick mid-gut cell model for proteomic comparisons between in-stage and adult tissue.


the Next Generation of Cell-Tissue Culture

3D Model Human Upper Airway

Human upper airways 3-D model. Bronchial epithelial cell infected with SARS-CoV, day 4 post-infection.

3D Model of a Tick Gut

Three-dimensional (3-D) tick mid-gut intestinal cells adhering to macrogelantinous beads. x400